Hyperhidrosis in medical practice is commonly understood as profuse sweating, which occurs independently of physical factors: increased motor activity, overheating, high ambient temperature or others. Sweating is the physiological process of secretion by sweat glands of a watery secretion (sweat), constantly occurring in the human body. The process of sweating protects the body from hyperthermia (overheating) and helps maintain its homeostasis (permanence): evaporating from the skin, sweat, thereby cooling the surface of the body and lowering its temperature. In the body of a healthy person, perspiration increases with an increase in ambient temperature to 20-25 ° C, as well as with physical or psychoemotional load. When the ambient temperature is raised to 36 ° C and higher, the body regulates thermoregulation by sweating, and its overheating is not allowed. Increased heat transfer and cooling of the body is facilitated by low relative humidity and active physical movement. On the contrary, in a humid environment with still air, the process of evaporation of sweat does not occur, therefore it is not recommended to stay in a hot bath or steam room for a long time. Excessive consumption of liquid sharply increases sweating, therefore, during intense physical activity or in a room with a high air temperature, do not drink a lot of water. As a result of psychoemotional stimulation, skin receptors, reacting, stimulate the secretion of sweat. Therefore, the increase in sweating occurs if a person experiences strong emotions, for example, anxiety, fear or pain. For such people it is very important to have dry hands and feet.
Pathological disturbances in the process of sweating are expressed in its excessive strengthening or, on the contrary, reduction, as well as in the change in the smell of sweat that becomes fetid. Increased sweating can be common, when profuse sweating occurs almost on the entire surface of the body, and often accompanies functional disorders of the nervous, endocrine system and a number of infectious diseases. In cases where sweating is limited to local areas of the body (soles, palms, axillary regions, elbows and knee folds), this is a local hyperhidrosis caused by increased excitability of the nervous system.
Abundant sweating or hyperhidrosis often causes people serious discomfort, adversely affecting the quality of their lives. Knowing your problem, a person is in constant tension, expecting that this can happen at the most inopportune moment and will cause inconvenience to others. This nervous expectation, in turn, further provokes sweating. The circle closes, and the exit from it seems impossible. The symptoms described above are signs of hyperhidrosis.
On a strong emotional turmoil, each person reacts in his own way: someone - a sharp jump in pressure or a bout of colic, and someone with increased sweating. Local hyperhidrosis is manifested by excessive sweating of the palms, feet, underarms, forehead and other parts of the body, both individually and collectively. Generalized hyperhidrosis without apparent causes requires immediate consultation of a doctor, as it may be a symptom of a serious illness.
Causes of hyperhidrosis.
Wet palms and soles, wet armpits, unpleasant sharp smell of sweat do not add confidence to a person and are negatively perceived by others. In order to understand the factors of the onset of hyperhidrosis, it is necessary to understand the physiology of the process of sweating in general. Sweating is one of the natural mechanisms that ensure the cooling of the body and the removal of excess fluid, poisonous substances, decomposition products and water-salt metabolism. It is no accident, some medicinal substances, being excreted from the body through the skin, color the sweat in a reddish, blue-green, yellowish hue. And wanting to lose weight, we go to the gym - with then a significant part of the weight is lost.
Sweat is produced by sweat glands located in the subcutaneous fat. The greatest number of sweat glands is found in the armpits, on the palms and soles of the feet. In its chemical composition, sweat 97-99% consists of water with impurities of salts (chlorides, phosphates, sodium and potassium sulphates) and other complex organic substances. The presence and concentration of these substances in the secret of a secret are different for different people, hence the individual smell of sweat inherent in different people. In addition, the secretion of sebaceous glands and bacteria on the surface of the skin are mixed with the sweat composition.
Physiological sweating is an indispensable condition for the purification of the body of slags and waste products. Bath, sauna, steam room contribute to the excretion of these substances from the body and general improvement. Even in a healthy person, sweating increases with physical exertion, as well as emotional stress and nervous overload. Hyperhidrosis can be one of the symptoms of a number of neuropsychiatric, somatic diseases or the consequence of non-compliance with personal hygiene rules.
Clinically distinguish between primary and secondary hyperhidrosis. Primary hyperhidrosis is more common in adolescence during a period of rapid puberty and occurs in 1% of people. Secondary hyperhidrosis, as a rule, is a consequence of a neurologic, endocrine or somatic disease. The identification of factors that determine hyperhidrosis determines the program for further examination and treatment of the patient. So, with generalized hyperhidrosis, it is necessary, first of all, to exclude tumor, endocrine and infectious diseases.
Sweat glands form and release sweat through the pores on the surface of the skin, and the normal regulation of sweating in the human body is provided by the autonomic nervous system that corresponds to the processes of metabolism, blood circulation, excretion, reproduction in the human body. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The process of sweating is regulated by the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. With the hyperfunction of the sympathetic nervous system, the normal functioning of the sweat glands changes: at the slightest excitement a person immediately becomes covered with sweat. But what is the trigger mechanism of these interrelated processes and what are the causes of hyperhidrosis - modern medical science can not yet give an exact answer to this question.
Methods of treatment of hyperhidrosis.
Before proceeding to the description of conservative methods of treating hyperhidrosis, it is necessary to give some general recommendations to people suffering from this ailment. Since sweat is a biological fluid that forms in the human body, it is an excellent breeding ground for bacteria, which leads to disruption of the protective functions of the skin and the development of skin diseases: sweating, abrasions and diaper rash, as well as fungal and pustular diseases. Therefore, the main postulate in the fight against hyperhidrosis should be careful compliance with the rules of personal hygiene: should take a shower every day (and sometimes more than once!), Do warm baths for the palms and feet (preferably with infusion of chamomile or oak bark), do wiping. To destroy the smell of sweat, it is recommended to use deodorants. It is not recommended to wear clothes, especially underwear and socks, from synthetic fabrics, as they are airtight. Change clothes, socks, tights should be as often as possible. Shoes should be comfortable, lightweight with special insoles, and in summer - open. It is necessary to limit and, if possible, exclude from the diet completely, too hot, spicy food, alcohol, nicotine, coffee. Strengthen the unpleasant odor of sweat products such as onions and garlic, spices.
If the hyperhidrosis is not a symptom accompanying the underlying disease, then for its treatment in medical practice the following types of conservative treatment are widely used:
Psychotherapeutic methods of treatment of hyperhidrosis, in particular hypnosis, are aimed at eliminating the patient`s psychological problems. Ability to control your emotions and fears helps some people cope with the problem of hyperhidrosis.
For drug therapy of hyperhidrosis, different groups of drugs are used, depending on the severity of the disease and contraindications. Preparations of belladonna (belladonna) containing atropine, affect the sympathetic nervous system, reducing its excitability and reducing the secretion of sweat glands. Sedative medicines (preparations of valerian, motherwort, herbal sedatives, etc.) and tranquilizers are shown to people with a labile, unstable nervous system. By lowering the excitability of the nervous system, they help cope with everyday stress as a factor in the onset of hyperhidrosis. The choice of the right drug and its dosage should be performed by a doctor.